SD kart Okuma

forti

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24 Eki 2009
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merhabalar, 1845k22 ile sd kart okuyup seriporttan gönderme gibi bir uygulama ile uğraşıyorum. CCS c deki mmcsd.c veya mmcspi.c dosyalarından hiçbişe anlamadım biraz aramdan sonra aşağıdaki dosyaları buldum.


Orjinalinde sd kartta göre bir image oluşturup içindeki country.txt dosyasını açıyor. Benim amacım birden fazla dosyayı ard arda açıp seri porttan yollamak. Kodu aşağıdaki şekilde uyarladığımda sadece bir dosyayı açıp okuma yapıyor diğerlerinde hata veriyor.Kimi dosya için hiç yok, kimisini de varlığını görüp açamıyor. Nedenini anlayamadım. Bazen 2 dosya okuyabiliyorum, bazen tek dosya okuyom.İyice karştı olaylar :D Sd kart için image dosyasını winImage adlı programla oluşturuyorum.

aklıma gelen open_file(0,fname,rec_size); fonksiyonunu her döngüde kaldığı adresten başlatmamız mı gerekir ve bunu programsal olarak nasıl buluruz? gibi bir çözüm geldi ama yapamadım.

orjinal main.c tek bir dosya country.txt yi okuyor.
Kod:
#include "18f452.h"
#fuses H4,NOWDT,NOPROTECT,NOWRT,NOWRTD,NOLVP,NOOSCSEN,BORV27,PUT,STVREN,NODEBUG,NOWRTB
#use delay(clock=40000000,RESTART_WDT)
#use rs232(baud=57600,parity=N,xmit=PIN_C6,rcv=PIN_C7,ERRORS)

#include "HDD Driver.c"

void main(){

int r1,i,j,error,error0,error1;
int16 rec_no;
int16 index,rec_size;
int32 offset;
char fname[32],buff0[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1],buff1[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1];
char c;



setup_adc_ports(NO_ANALOGS);


set_tris_c(0b10010011); //c7=rx I, c6=tx O, c5 SDO O,c4 SDI I

output_high(_CS);


printf("\r\n**** SD / MMC FAT16  Read Demo for Sonsivri **** ");
printf("\r\n");
Delay_ms(1000);
printf("\r\Now Open COUNTRY.TXT File on SD Card  ");
printf("\r\n");
Delay_ms(3000);


SETUP_SPI (SPI_MASTER |  SPI_SS_DISABLED |SPI_H_TO_L| SPI_CLK_DIV_16 | SPI_XMIT_L_TO_H);


buff0[MMC_BUFF_SIZE]=0;
buff1[MMC_BUFF_SIZE]=0;
rec_no=0;

///////// init MMC ////////////////////////////////////////
error=init_MMC(10);
if (error>0) {
goto mmc_exit;
}


printf("\n\r MMC initialized \n\r");
rec_size=MMC_BUFF_SIZE;


//strcpy(fname,"HOME\\HOME.TXT");
strcpy(fname,"COUNTRY.TXT");
rec_size=MMC_BUFF_SIZE;
error0=open_file(0,fname,rec_size);

if (error0>0) {
printf("\n\r fopen as 0 failed error=%U\n\r",error);
goto mmc_exit;
}
else printf("\n\r opened as 0 file %s with rec size %lu \n\r",fname,rec_size);





do {

error0=file_read(0,buff0);

if (error0>0 && error0<255 ) {
printf("\n\r fread 0 failed error=%U\n\r",error0);
break;
}

printf("%s",buff0);


rec_no++;

} while (error0==0);



mmc_exit:
printf("\n\r done winhex adj= %lu \n\r",winhex_adj);



while(true);


}

değiştirdiğim ard arda dosya okumaya çalışan main.c

Kod:
#include <18f4520>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#use delay (clock=4000000)
#use rs232 (baud=57600, xmit=pin_C6, rcv=pin_C7, parity=N, stop=1)
#include "HDD Driver.c"


void main(){

int r1,i,j,error,error0,error1;
int16 rec_no;
int16 index,rec_size;
int32 offset;
char fname[32],buff0[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1],buff1[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1];
char c;

char files[3][32]={"country.txt","u-boot.bin","9-9260rootfs.img","10-9260rootfs.img"};

i=0;
setup_adc_ports(NO_ANALOGS);
set_tris_c(0b10010011); //c7=rx I, c6=tx O, c5 SDO O,c4 SDI I

output_high(_CS);

printf("\r\n**** SD / MMC FAT16  Read Demo for Sonsivri **** ");
printf("\r\n");
Delay_ms(1000);
printf("\r\Now Open COUNTRY.TXT File on SD Card  ");
printf("\r\n");
Delay_ms(3000);


SETUP_SPI (SPI_MASTER |  SPI_SS_DISABLED |SPI_H_TO_L| SPI_CLK_DIV_16 | SPI_XMIT_L_TO_H);

while(i<4){
buff0[MMC_BUFF_SIZE]=0;
buff1[MMC_BUFF_SIZE]=0;
rec_no=0;

///////// init MMC ////////////////////////////////////////
error=init_MMC(10);

if (error>0) {
goto mmc_exit;
}


printf("\n\r MMC initialized \n\r");
rec_size=MMC_BUFF_SIZE;


//strcpy(fname,"HOME\\HOME.TXT");
strcpy(fname,files[i]);
printf("\rfilename:%s\n",files[i]);
delay_ms(3000);
rec_size=MMC_BUFF_SIZE;
error0=open_file(0,fname,rec_size);

if (error0>0) {
printf("\n\r fopen as 0 failed error=%U\n\r",error);
goto mmc_exit;
}
else printf("\n\r opened as 0 file %s with rec size %lu \n\r",fname,rec_size);






do {

error0=file_read(0,buff0);
if (error0>0 && error0<255 ) {
printf("\n\r fread 0 failed error=%U\n\r",error0);
break;
}
printf("%s",buff0);

rec_no++;

} while (error0==0);

mmc_exit:
printf("\n\r done winhex adj= %lu \n\r",winhex_adj);

i++;
}

}


HDD Driver.c
Kod:
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//   Name:            HDD Driver.c                                        //
//   Date:            02/01/2004                                          //
//   Version:         1.1                                               //
//   Type:            PIC C Driver for MMC                                //
//   Author:        Mike Luck & Douglas Kennedy                       //
//   Company:         MPIC3.COM                                         //
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

//   Note:
//       This code is a work in progress & not a finished fully working
//         project. Please check www.mpic3.com reguarly for updates.

/// PIN Assignments //////////////////////////////
#DEFINE _CS PIN_C2 // chip select for MMC
//#DEFINE SDO PIN_C5
//#DEFINE CLK PIN_C3
//#DEFINE SDI PIN_C4
// SPI hardware pins are
// SDO C5
// SDI C4
// SCK C3
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

///// Note old values needed before all SPI modes could be set up using SPI_setup
/// for 16 parts ///////////
//#DEFINE SSPCON 0x14
//#DEFINE SSPSTAT 0x94
//#BIT SMP=SSPSTAT.7
//#BIT CKE=SSPSTAT.6
//#BIT CKP=SSPCON.4
//#BIT SSPEN=SSPCON.5
//////////////////////////////

// For 18F452
#DEFINE SSPSTAT 0x0FC7
#DEFINE SSPCON1 0x0FC6
#BIT SMP=SSPSTAT.7
#BIT CKE=SSPSTAT.6
#BIT CKP=SSPCON1.4

#DEFINE MAX_FILES 2 /// max number of open files
#DEFINE MMC_BUFF_SIZE 32 /// 32 for PCM
#DEFINE MMC_FILE_NAME_SIZE 32

#DEFINE ROOT_CLUSTER 0
#DEFINE NEXT_CLUSTER 1

#define MMC_INIT_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_CMD_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_CLUSTER_TRACE FALSE // if true prints to serial port
#define MMC_OPEN_TRACE FALSE // if true prints to serial port
#define MMC_READ_TRACE FALSE // if true prints file_addr,cluster index etc
#define MMC_WRITE_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_READ_BLOCK_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_SET_BLOCK_LEN_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE FALSE
#define MMC_NEW_CLUSTER FALSE
////// MMC prototypes
#separate
int init_MMC(int max_tries);
#separate
int open_file(int fnbr,char *fname,int16 rec_length);
#separate
int file_read(int8 fnbr,char *buff);
#separate
int file_write(int8 fnbr,int *buff);
#separate
int file_set(int fnbr,int32 offset);
#separate
int file_new_cluster(int8 fnbr,int8 mode); /// mode 1=fat1 2=fat2

int32 atoint32 (char *s );
signed int strncmp(char *s1, char *s2, int n);
///////////////////// MMC GLOBALS /////////////////////////////
int16 cluster_size_bytes; // bytes in a cluster
//int16 dir_cluster_chain_ptr; // link to the first cluster in the dir

int32 fat1_address; // physical address of fat1 cluster table assigned by INIT_MMC
int32 fat2_address; // physical address of fat1 cluster table assigned by INIT_MMC
int32 root_dir_address; // physical address of volume,file,folder tiles assigned by INIT_MMC
int32 data_area_address; // physical address of data area assigned by INIT_MMC
int32 winhex_adj; // Win hex hides the bytes in the reserved sectors
// this means Fat1 is address 512
// so adj is fat1-512

int32 block_size; // current MMC block size

int MMC_init=FALSE;

int MMC_dir_protected=TRUE;

////////// open file specific globals ///////////////////////
struct{
   char name[MMC_FILE_NAME_SIZE+1]; // fopen file name
   int32 dir_addr_ptr; // physical address of this files tile info
   int16 root_cluster_ptr; // location of first cluster in FAT
   int16 this_cluster_ptr; // location of current cluster in FAT
   int16 next_cluster_ptr; // location of the next cluster for a file or sub dir in FAT
   int32 addr_ptr; // physical address in the file the current
   // cluster points to
   // address=(this_chain_ptr-2)*cluster_size_bytes+data_area_address
   //
   // cluster_addr(THIS_CLUSTER) assigns it
   // cluster_addr(NEXT_CLUSTER) moves to the data the next
   // cluster points to
   int32 size; // size of open file in bytes
   int32 cluster_offset; // offset within the file representing the start of the current cluster
   // (0 is start and ends with the cluster contianing eof )
   // auto increased by cluster_size_bytes each time a new cluster is entered

   int32 offset; // current offset into the open file ( 0 is start size(file size) is end)
   // auto increased by rec size each time a rec is read
   // addr_prt+offset-cluster_offset is physical address of
   // the current position within the file
   // the physical positions are not always contiguous since the
   // clusters of the file are not always adjacent to each other
   int16 rec_size; // fopen record_size
   // char buff[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1]; // used for open and for read write
   // init MMC uses file 0 buff to fetch the globals

} file[MAX_FILES];


#separate
int mmc_cmd(int8 cmd,int32 address,int8 tries,int8 valid,int8 invalid){
   int i,r1;
   for( i=0;i<16;i++) SPI_READ(0xFF);// digest prior operation
   // commands
   // 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
   // 0 1 b b b b b b bbbbbb=cmd
   // 16=0x50 set blocklength
   // 17=0x51 read block
   // 24=0x58 write block
   #if MMC_CMD_TRACE
   printf("\n\r cmd=%2X \n\r",cmd);
   #endif
   SPI_READ(cmd);
   SPI_READ(MAKE8(address,3));
   SPI_READ(MAKE8(address,2));
   SPI_READ(MAKE8(address,1));
   SPI_READ(MAKE8(address,0));
   SPI_READ(0x95); // valid crc for 0x40 only invalid for others but spi mode doesn't care
   for(i=0;i< tries;i++) {
      r1=SPI_READ(0xFF);
      #if MMC_CMD_TRACE
         printf(" %2X",r1);
      #endif
      if (r1==valid) break;
      if (r1==invalid) break;
   }
   return(r1);
}


#separate
int set_BLOCKLEN( int32 size){
   int r1;

   r1=mmc_cmd(0x50,size,16,0x00,0x40); /// cmd.data,tries,valid code,invlaid code
   if (r1==0x00) goto done ;
   if (r1==0x40) goto invalid;


   return(false);
   invalid:
   #IF MMC_SET_BLOCK_LEN_TRACE
      printf("\n\r para err\n\r");
   #ENDIF
done:
   block_size=size; //// assign global block size
   //printf("\n\r blk size=%lu",block_size);
   return(true);
}


#separate
int read_BLOCK( int32 address, char *buff){
   //// low level read ..requires block len to be called first to set global blocksize
   int r1;
   long i,iw; /// allows large gt 255 buff size addressing
   //int data[128];
   r1=mmc_cmd(0x51,address,16,0x00,0x40);

   if (r1==0x00) goto get_token ; // we can read data payload
   if (r1==0x40) goto invalid;

   #IF MMC_READ_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("\n\r read block err 1 address=%lu \n\r",address);
   #ENDIF
   return(false);
   invalid:
   #IF MMC_READ_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("\n\r read block err 2 adress=%lu \n\r",address);
   #ENDIF
   return(false);
   get_token:
   for(iw=0;iw<1024;iw++){
   r1=SPI_READ(0xFF);
   //data[iw]=r1;
   if (r1==0xFE) goto read_data; // read token $FE
   }
   #IF MMC_READ_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("\n\r read block err 3 address=%lu \n\r",address);
   #ENDIF
   return(false);
   read_data:
   #IF MMC_READ_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("\n\r read block tries for FE =%lu \n\r",iw);
   #ENDIF

   for (i=0;i<block_size;i++) buff[i]=SPI_READ(0xFF);
   SPI_READ(0xFF); // read crc
   SPI_READ(0xFF);

   return(true);
}

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
///////////////////////////////// INIT MMC ///////////////////////
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#separate

int init_MMC(int max_tries){
   int32 start_lsec;
   int16 sec_resv,sec_for_FAT,bytes_per_sector,root_dir_entries,
   sec_for_data,count_of_clusters,root_dir_sectors,total_sectors;
   int i,tries,sec_per_cluster,c;
   char buff[32];
   tries=0;
   cmd0:
   ///////////////////// place null treminators in globals fname and buff
   for(i=0;i<MAX_FILES;i++){
      file[i].name[0]=0;
      file[i].rec_size=32; //// default rec_size = 32 byte tile size of FAT16
   }
   //buff[MMC_BUFF_SIZE]=0;
   //frec_size=32; //// default rec_size = 32 byte tile size of FAT16
   output_high(_CS); /// reset chip hardware !!! required
   delay_ms(20);
   for(i=0;i<20;i++) SPI_READ(0xFF); // min 80 clocks to get MMC ready
   output_low(_CS); /// !!! required
   delay_ms(20);
   #if MMC_INIT_TRACE
      printf("cmd0");
   #ENDIF
   c=mmc_cmd(0x40,0x00000000,128,0x01,0x99);

   if (c==0x01) goto exit_cmd1;

   // note: i must cycle at least 8 times (16 is safe )

   if (tries++<max_tries) goto cmd0; /// restart
   else return (10);
   exit_cmd1:
   // CPDMOD - This SOMETIMES seems to be necessary
   // output_high(_CS);
   // SPI_READ(0xFF); // min 8 clocks to get MMC ready
   // output_low(_CS);
   //CPDMOD End


   tries=0;
   cmd1:

   /// now try to switch to idle mode
   /// Note: cmd1(idle) is the only command allowed after a cmd0(reset)
   //

   c=mmc_cmd(0x41,0x00000000,128,0x00,0x99);
   if (c==0x00) { goto ready;}


   if( tries++<max_tries) { printf("cmd1"); goto cmd1;}
   else return(11);
   ready:
   //for( i=0;i<32;i++) SPI_READ(0xFF);// digest operation
   /// MMC is inialized and in idle state ready for commands
   ////
   //// we need to first access the master boot sector physical address=0
   ///
   if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)32)==false) return(12); /// sets global block_size to 32

   if (read_block(0x00000000,buff)==false) return (99); /// read the first few bytes
   #if MMC_INIT_TRACE
      printf("\n\r sector0=");
      for(i=0;i<32;i++)printf("%2X ",buff[i]);
   #ENDIF
   if (buff[0]==0xEB || buff[0]==0xE9){
      /// sector 0 is the boot sector
      #if MMC_INIT_TRACE
         printf("\n\r boot sector= 0");
      #ENDIF
   }
   else{
      //// partition

      /// access the master boot sector physical address 0 at offset 1BE
      if (read_BLOCK(0x000001BE,buff)==false) return(13);
      #if MMC_INIT_TRACE
         for(i=0;i<32;i++)printf("%2X ",buff[i]);
      #ENDIF
      // start_lsec is address of the partion boot sector
      start_lsec=make32(buff[11],buff[10],buff[9],buff[8]);
      #if MMC_INIT_TRACE
         printf("\n\r boot sector= %lu",start_lsec);
      #ENDIF
      if (read_BLOCK(start_lsec*512,buff)==false) return(14);
   }

   bytes_per_sector=make16(buff[12],buff[11]);
   if(bytes_per_sector!=512) return(15);
   sec_per_cluster=buff[13];
   cluster_size_bytes=(int16)sec_per_cluster*bytes_per_sector;


   sec_resv=make16(buff[15],buff[14]);

   root_dir_entries=make16(buff[18],buff[17]);// number of 32 byte tiles

   total_sectors=make16(buff[20],buff[19]);

   sec_for_FAT=make16(buff[23],buff[22]);
   //branch to file directory
   fat1_address=(start_lsec+sec_resv)*bytes_per_sector;
   fat2_address=fat1_address+bytes_per_sector*sec_for_FAT;
   root_dir_address=(sec_for_FAT*2+start_lsec+sec_resv)*bytes_per_sector;
   data_area_address=root_dir_address+root_dir_entries*32;
   ///// check for FAT16
   root_dir_sectors=root_dir_entries>>4;

   sec_for_data=total_sectors - sec_resv -sec_for_fat*2 -root_dir_sectors;

   count_of_clusters=sec_for_data/sec_per_cluster;

   if (count_of_clusters <4085 || count_of_clusters>65525) return(17);

   winhex_adj=fat1_address-bytes_per_sector;

   #if MMC_INIT_TRACE

      printf("Files:/n/r");
      for(i=0;i<MAX_FILES;i++){
         printf("/n/r",file[i].name[i]);
      }

   #ENDIF

   return(0);
}


#separate
int get_CID(char s){
   int i,r1;
   r1=mmc_cmd(0x4A,0x00000000,16,0x00,0x99);


   if (r1==0x00) goto get_token ; // we can read data payload

   return(false);
   get_token:
   for(i=0;i<16;i++)if (SPI_READ(0xFF)==0xFE) goto read_CID; // read token $FE
   return(false);
   read_CID:
   //for (i=0;i<18;i++) s[i]=SPI_READ(0xFF);

   return(true);
}


#separate
int get_CSD(char s){
   int i,r1;
   r1=mmc_cmd(0x4A,0x00000000,16,0x00,0x99);


   if (r1==0x00) goto get_token ; // we can read data payload

   return(false);
   get_token:
   for(i=0;i<16;i++)if (SPI_READ(0xFF)==0xFE) goto read_CSD; // read token $FE
   return(false);
   read_CSD:
   //for(i=0;i<18;i++) s[i]=SPI_READ(0xFF);

   return(true);
}


#separate
int write_BLOCK( int32 address,char *buff,int16 size)
{
   /// low level write ....MMC restriction is that exactly 512 bytes must be written
   /// so a 512 byte section is read in starting at address the first (size) bytes
   /// are over written with the new data and the updated 512 bytes written back
   /// the starting address of the block that contains the requeseted address
   ///
   /// the data may span a block if so it is split and two writes are done
   /// so as to maitain MMC 512 write boundary restrictions

   int r1,a,b,c,d;
   int16 i,blk_offset,bytes_posted;
   char tmp_buff[512];
   int32 block_address;

   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("addr=%lu",address);
   #endif

   a=make8(address,3);
   b=make8(address,2);
   c=make8(address,1);
   c=c & 0b11111110;
   d=0;
   block_address=make32(a,b,c,d); //// address int divided by 512
   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("wb>> size=%lu payload=",size);
      for(i=0;i<size;i++)printf("%c",buff[i]);
   #endif

   /// first set up the block size to 512
   if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)512)==false) return(false); // sets global block_size

   if(block_size!=512) return(false);
   bytes_posted=0; /// no data updated yet

   ////////////////////////////////////////////////
   next_block: /// loop back here for second block
   ////////////////////////////////////////////////
   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("\n\r blk addr=%lu \n\r",block_address);
   #endif

   if((block_address < data_area_address) && MMC_dir_protected) return(false);

   MMC_dir_protected=true;
   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("read blk");
   #endif
   /// first read in the existing block
   if(read_block(block_address,tmp_buff)==false) return(false) ;



   /// now update the block with new data
   blk_offset=(address - block_address); /// offset within the block
   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("blk_offset=%lu size=%lu",blk_offset,size);
   #endif

   if( blk_offset + size > 512 ){
      // data spans the block so write to end of block first

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         //// original data
         printf("\n\r spans wb=");
         for(i=blk_offset;i<512;i++)printf("%c",tmp_buff[i]);
      #endif

      for (i=blk_offset;i < 512;i++)tmp_buff[i]=buff[i-blk_offset];

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         /// updated data
         printf("\n\r spans wb*=");
         for(i=blk_offset;i<512;i++)printf("%c",tmp_buff[i]);
      #endif

      bytes_posted=512-blk_offset; /// wrote from offset to end of block

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         printf("\n\r posted=%lu",bytes_posted);
      #endif

   }
   else{
      //original or remaining spanned block data fits in next block or original block

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         printf(" blk offset=%lu",blk_offset);
         /// original data
         printf("\n\r wb=");
         for(i=blk_offset;i<blk_offset+size;i++)printf("%c",tmp_buff[i]);
      #endif

      for (i=blk_offset;i<blk_offset+ size;i++)tmp_buff[i]=buff[bytes_posted+i-blk_offset];

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         /// updated data
         printf("\n\r wb*=");
         for(i=blk_offset;i<blk_offset+size;i++)printf("%c",tmp_buff[i]);
      #endif

      bytes_posted=size;

      #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
         printf("\n\r posted=%lu",bytes_posted);
      #endif

   }

   ///////////////////////////////////
   /////////// write out the block
   //////////////////////////////////
   #if MMC_WRITE_BLOCK_TRACE
      printf("wb>> writing block %lu",block_address);
   #endif
   r1=mmc_cmd(0x58,block_address,16,0x00,0x40);


   if (r1==0x00) goto send_token ; // we can send data payload
   if (r1==0x40) goto invalid;


   return(false);
invalid:
   printf("\n\r write block err %2X\n\r",r1);
   return(false);
   send_token:
   SPI_READ(0xFE);

   for (i=0;i < 512;i++) {

      SPI_READ(tmp_buff[i]); /// send payload
   }


   SPI_READ(0xFF); // send dummy chcksum
   SPI_READ(0xFF);
   r1=SPI_READ(0xFF);
   for( i=0;i<0x0fff;i++) {
      r1=SPI_READ(0xFF);// digest prior operation
      if (r1!=0x00) break;
   }

   if(size > bytes_posted){
      /// data spanned block so we need to upadte next block as well
      size=size-bytes_posted;
      block_address=block_address+512;/// advance a block

      address=address+bytes_posted; /// move address ptr forward

      goto next_block;
   }


   return(true);
}


#separate
void dump_block(){
   int in_buff[12],c,i,j;
   int32 read_address;
   char buff[MMC_BUFF_SIZE+1];
   for(i=0;i<12;i++)in_buff[i]=0;
   printf("\n\r Input Start address:");
   j=0;
   do {
      c=getc();
      in_buff[j++]=c;
      putc(c);
   }
   while(c!=13);
   in_buff[j-1]=0;

   read_address=atoint32(in_buff);
   if (read_BLOCK(read_address,buff)==true){
      printf(" BLOCK\n\r");
      for(j=0;j<MMC_BUFF_SIZE;j=j+8){
         printf("%4LX ",read_address+j);
         for(i=0;i<8;i++)printf(" %2X",buff[i+j]);
         printf("\n\r");

      }
   }
   else printf("\n\r read_BLOCK failed");

}


#separate
int32 cluster_addr(int fnbr,int mode){
   int32 address;
   char buff[2]; //// buffer for 2 byte ptrs
   ///// returns the physical address in the data area of the data pointed to by either the
   ///// root cluster or the next cluster in the chain
   /////
   ///// if ROOT_CLUSTER is called then this routine returns the address of the first cluster
   ///// and assigns this_cluster_ptr and next_cluster_ptr
   /////
   ///// if NEXT_CLUSTER is called then this routine returns the address of the next cluster
   ///// using the existing next_cluster ptr number
   ///// and moves the existing next_cluster ptr number into this_cluster
   ///// and assigns the new next cluster ptr number (FFFF) if at the end of chain
   ///// if NEXT_CLUSTER is called and the next_cluster_ptr number is FFFF
   ///// an address of FFFFFFFF is returned

   ///// uses the globals cluster_size_bytes,data_area_address
   //// file struct has the base=root cluster ptr, current=this cluster ptr ,next =cluster chain ptr

   //// !!!! a call with NEXT_cluster must have a valid next_cluster_ptr value
   //// !!!! a call to THIS CLUSTER must have a valid this_cluster_ptr

   //// !!!! Fopen logic considers the cluster prt in the directory tile
   //// to be a next=next_cluster_ptr so NEXT_CLUSTER is used to calc the physical address
   //// of the first root cluster this also assigns the current=this_cluster_ptr
   /// and fetches the next cluster prt
   ////
   #IF MMC_CLUSTER_TRACE // if true prints to serial port
      printf("\n\r cluster addr>> next_cluster_ptr= %lu this_cluster=%lu \r\n",file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr,file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr);
   #ENDIF
   if (mode==NEXT_CLUSTER){
      ///access the next cluster in the chain
      /// requires a valid this_cluster_ptr number and a valid next_cluster_ptr number

      if(file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr==0xFFFF){
         #IF MMC_CLUSTER_TRACE // if true prints to serial port
            printf("last cluster");
         #ENDIF
         address=0XFFFFFFFF;
      }
      else{
         if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)2)==false) return(35); /// set up to read 2 bytes
         if(read_BLOCK(fat1_address+(file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr)*2,buff)==false) return(33);
         file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr=file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr; // update current with prev next in chain
         file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr=make16(buff[1],buff[0]); /// update next in chain

         address=((int32)file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr-(int32)2)*(int32)cluster_size_bytes+
         data_area_address;

      }
   }
   if (mode==ROOT_CLUSTER){
      //// root_cluster_ptr was assigned from the file tile in fopen
      file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr=file[fnbr].root_cluster_ptr;
      if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)2)==false) return(35); /// set up to read 2 bytes
      if(read_BLOCK(fat1_address+(file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr)*2,buff)==false) return(33);
      file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr=make16(buff[1],buff[0]); /// update next in chain
      address=((int32)file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr-(int32)2)*(int32)cluster_size_bytes+
      data_area_address;

   }

   // printf("clust addr call fnbr=%u blk_size=%lu",fnbr,file[fnbr].rec_size);

   if(set_BLOCKLEN(file[fnbr].rec_size)==false) return(37); /// reset to original rec_size

   #IF MMC_CLUSTER_TRACE // if true prints to serial port
      printf("\n\r cluster addr>> next_cluster_ptr*= %lu this_cluster*=%lu \r\n",file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr,file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr);
   #ENDIF return(address);
}


///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
///////////////////////// OPEN FILE ///////////////////////////////////////////
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#separate
int open_file(int fnbr,char *fname,int16 rec_length){
   int32 dir_addr_ptr;
   int16 bytes_read;
   int i,ptr1,ptr2,lnf_tiles,j;
   char file_name[12];
   int attribute,directory,archive;
   char tmp;
   char buff[32]; //// buffer for 32 byte tiles

   int level; /// level in the directory structure 0 is top
   /////// directory is searched and if file is found

   //////
   ////// init_MMC(tries) must be called first
   ////// uses globals root_dir_address

   //start by searching the root directory for folder or file

   /// assign an inital next_cluster_ptr in the root directory
   file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr=0;
   file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr=0;

   dir_addr_ptr=root_dir_address;
   file_name[11]=0;
   level=0;
   ptr1=0;
   ptr2=0;
   bytes_read=0; //// byte read so far in this cluster

   read_directory:
   /// extract the directory levels(folders)
   while ((fname[ptr2]!='/') && (fname[ptr2]!='\\') && (fname[ptr2]!='\0') && (fname[ptr2]!='.') ){
      // a dos directory (folder) name can not exceed 8 chars
      if ((ptr2-ptr1)>7) return (20);
      ptr2++;
   }
   #IF MMC_OPEN_TRACE
      printf("\n\r fopen ptr1=%u ptr2=%u ",ptr1,ptr2);
   #ENDIF

   if (ptr2==0){ ptr2=1;ptr1=1;goto read_directory;} /// skip a leading '/' or '\'
   if ((ptr2-ptr1)==0) return (21);

   // ptr1 is the chars processed so far
   // ptr2 is the position of '/' or '\' or '.' or '\0'
   // prepare the file or directory name fomat is cccccccceee
   // c is a valid letter or blank eee is extension or blank
   // a directory name is 'cccccccc ' a file 'cccccccceee' always 11 chars
   for(i=0;i<11;i++)file_name[i]=32;//blank
   file_name[11]=0;
   i=0;
   while(ptr1<ptr2){
      // extract the name

      tmp=fname[ptr1];
      tmp=TOUPPER(tmp);
      file_name[i]=tmp;
      ptr1++;i++;
   }
   if(fname[ptr2]=='.'){
      // extract the extension
      i=8;
      while((fname[ptr1]!='\0') && (i<12)){
         ptr1++;
         tmp=fname[ptr1];
         file_name[i]=TOUPPER(tmp);
         i++;
      }
   }
   ptr1++;
   ptr2=ptr1; // advance over the '\' or '/' so next pass starts correctly
   if (block_size!=(int32)32){
      if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)32)==false) return(17); /// tiles are 32 bytes
   }
   if (read_BLOCK(dir_addr_ptr,buff)==false) return(10);

   // decode the FAT16 entries
   // a tile is 32 bytes
   // std dos files take one tile
   // a long file name has multiple tiles
   // starting with the last down to the first and
   // then a std dos tile is found
   // byte 11 is 0x0f for LNF tiles and 0x00 for std
   // we skip the LNF and goto STD tile

   tile_decode:
   lnf_tiles=0;
   if (buff[0]==0xE5) goto next_tile; ///0xE5 is the deleted file flag
   if (buff[0]==0x00){
      printf("\n\r file err [%s] not found \n\r",file_name);
      return(11); /// file not found
   }
   if (buff[11]==0x0F){
      /// get number of LNF tiles
      lnf_tiles=buff[0] & 0b00111111;
      bytes_read=bytes_read+lnf_tiles*32;
      if(bytes_read>cluster_size_bytes){
         // compute next cluster address next_cluster_ptr must be valid
         // assigns this_cluster_ptr

         dir_addr_ptr=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER);
         if (dir_addr_ptr==0xFFFFFF) return (22);
         bytes_read=bytes_read-cluster_size_bytes;
         dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr+bytes_read;
      }
      else{
         dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr+lnf_tiles*32;
      }

      //advance over the lnf tiles
      /// test to see if we need next cluster in chain
      if (read_BLOCK(dir_addr_ptr,buff)==false) return(31);
      /// !!! may read into next sector
   }


   /// check out the standard DOS tile
   #IF MMC_OPEN_TRACE
      printf("\n\r fname[%s] level=%u \n\r",file_name,level);
      for (j=0;j<11;j++)printf("%c",buff[j]);
   #ENDIF
   if(strncmp(buff,file_name, 11)==0){ ///8.3 file name ex "FILE EXT" "FOLDER "
      // we have a file type or a sub directory(folder)
      // so we get the starting cluster number
      attribute=buff[11];

      file[fnbr].root_cluster_ptr=make16(buff[27],buff[26]);/// assign initial cluster ptr
      /// if it is not a directory
      /// it points to the begining of the file
      /// cluster chain



      if ((attribute & 0b00010000)>0)directory=true;
      else directory=false;
      if ((attribute & 0b00100000)>0 || attribute==0){
         archive=true; //// we have our file

         file[fnbr].size=make32(buff[31],buff[30],buff[29],buff[28]);
         file[fnbr].dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr; ///save address of this files tile
         /// assign global value
      }
      else archive=false;



      goto match_found;
      // goto fill_table; // we have a match
   }
   next_tile:
   bytes_read=bytes_read+32;
   if(bytes_read > cluster_size_bytes){
      /// requires a valid next=next_cluster_ptr
      // compute next cluster address and assign this cluster
      dir_addr_ptr=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER);
      if (dir_addr_ptr==0xFFFFFF) return (23);
      bytes_read=bytes_read-cluster_size_bytes;
      dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr+bytes_read;
   }
   else{
      dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr+32;
   }


   dir_addr_ptr=dir_addr_ptr+32;

   if (read_BLOCK(dir_addr_ptr,buff)==false) return(32);
   goto tile_decode;

   match_found:
   ///// if we have a sub directory we need to cycle down a level
   if (directory==true) {
      // compute the sub directory address
      // compute this cluster address this_cluster_ptr must be valid
      dir_addr_ptr=cluster_addr(fnbr,ROOT_CLUSTER); /// set physical addr of starting cluster
      #IF MMC_OPEN_TRACE
         printf("\n\r next_cluster_ptr=%lu \n\r ",file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr);
      #ENDIF
      //printf("\n\r dir_addr_ptr=%lu",dir_addr_ptr);
      // dir_addr_ptr=((int32)cluster_table[0]-(int32)2)*(int32)cluster_size_bytes+
      // data_area_address;
      level++;
      goto read_directory;
   }


   // note record length must divide into 512 to align properly
   if (rec_length<2) return(12);



   /// get the initial file_addr_ptr

   file[fnbr].addr_ptr=cluster_addr(fnbr,ROOT_CLUSTER);
   file[fnbr].offset=0; //init bytes read from beginning of open file
   file[fnbr].cluster_offset=0; //init bytes read to beginning of the current cluster
   file[fnbr].rec_size=(int32)rec_length; /// assign file record size
   #IF MMC_OPEN_TRACE
      printf("root_cluster=%lu \n\r",file[fnbr].root_cluster_ptr);
   #ENDIF

   //printf("\n\r fopen %u rec size=%lu",fnbr,file[fnbr].rec_size);

   if(set_BLOCKLEN(file[fnbr].rec_size)==false) return(13);

   return(0);
}

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////// FILE READ ///////////////////////////////////////
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#separate
int file_read(int8 fnbr,char *buff){
   int32 address;
   int32 nxt_cluster;
   //// MMC allows a read to start and stop at any address but this file system
   //// imposes a record size restriction the record size must divide into the
   /// 512 block to allow writing of the records
   /// rec_size must align with cluster boundary 2048 ...must be a divisor of 2048
   /// find the cluster containing the offset
   /// buff must be at least the size of the recordsize requested in the File open

   //printf("foffset=%lu coffset=%lu ",file[fnbr].offset,file[fnbr].cluster_offset);////$$$$

   if ( file[fnbr].offset>=file[fnbr].size) return(10); /// already beyond eof

   if ( file[fnbr].offset + (int32) file[fnbr].rec_size > file[fnbr].cluster_offset + (int32) cluster_size_bytes){
      #IF MMC_READ_TRACE
         printf("adv to next cluster");
      #ENDIF
      /// need to advance to the next cluster
      nxt_cluster=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER);
      if ( nxt_cluster!=0XFFFFFFFF) file[fnbr].addr_ptr=nxt_cluster;
      else return(11); /// last cluster in file reached

      file[fnbr].cluster_offset=file[fnbr].cluster_offset+(int32)cluster_size_bytes; //foffset is the byte offset within the file
      //that file_addr_ptr points to
   }
   address=file[fnbr].addr_ptr+file[fnbr].offset-file[fnbr].cluster_offset;
   #IF MMC_READ_TRACE
      //printf("\n\r offset=%lu",cluster_offset);
      printf("\n\r data_area_address=%lu",address);
      printf("\n\r cluster_size_bytes=%lu",cluster_size_bytes);

      //printf("\n\r file_addr_ptr=%lu",file_addr_ptr);
   #ENDIF

   if (read_BLOCK(address,buff)==false)return(12); /// read block into buff

   if ( file[fnbr].offset+file[fnbr].rec_size< file[fnbr].size ) file[fnbr].offset=file[fnbr].offset+file[fnbr].rec_size;
   else{ /// end of file
      #IF MMC_READ_TRACE
         printf("eof size=%lu",file[fnbr].size);
      #ENDIF
      buff[ file[fnbr].size-file[fnbr].offset]=0; /// short record
      file[fnbr].offset=file[fnbr].size;
      return(255); //eof
   }
   return(0);
}


//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////// WRITE FILE /////////////////////////////////////
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#separate
int file_write(int8 fnbr,int *buff){
   //// buff size must be at least the recordsize requested in File open
   //// the record is updated only chars beyond rec_size are ignored
   /// set up for write
   /// A MMC write is restricted it must be for a block and allign on block boundaries
   /// blocklen must be exactly 512 and start address must be the begining of a
   /// sector
   /// the buff could potentially span a sector and or span a block(512) boundary
   /// ex there could be 1byte left in a block and 1 byte lect in a sector
   // if the block is the last block in the sector
   /// worst case we could write to two blocks and need a new sector
   int32 address,nxt_cluster;

   int16 in_cluster_size,out_cluster_size;
   int8 appending_flag;
   appending_flag=0;
   if (file[fnbr].offset + file[fnbr].rec_size>=file[fnbr].size) appending_flag=1;


   /// find the cluster containing the offset
   if ( file[fnbr].offset+file[fnbr].rec_size>=file[fnbr].cluster_offset + cluster_size_bytes){
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("spanning cluster \n\r");
      #ENDIF
      /// spans the current cluster so we split the write
      in_cluster_size=file[fnbr].cluster_offset+cluster_size_bytes-file[fnbr].offset;
      /// bytes from start of file to end of this cluste- bytes into the file
      out_cluster_size=file[fnbr].rec_size - in_cluster_size;
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("write>> spanning cluster inside=%lu outside=%lu \n\r",in_cluster_size,out_cluster_size);
      #ENDIF
      address=file[fnbr].addr_ptr+file[fnbr].offset - file[fnbr].cluster_offset;
      // physical address=
      // physical address of the cluster +offset from begining of file
      // - offset from the begining of file for the byte at the begining of the cluster
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("write file>>cluster=%lu in clstr addr=%lu",file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr,address);
      #ENDIF
      //// address=physical offset of this cluster +bytes into this cluster
      if(write_BLOCK(address,buff,in_cluster_size)==false)return(81); //// write first chunk



      /// allocate the next cluster
      nxt_cluster=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER); ///physical address of file data that the
      /// specific cluster indexes
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("nxt_cluster=%lu",nxt_cluster);
      #ENDIF

      if ( nxt_cluster==0xFFFFFFFF){
         #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
            printf("updating FAT");
         #ENDIF
         //// FAT2 is an identical copy of FAT1
         file_new_cluster(fnbr,1); /// a new cluster is allocated in FAT1
         file_new_cluster(fnbr,2); /// a new cluster is allocated in FAT2
         nxt_cluster=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER); ///physical address of file data that the
         #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
            printf("\n\r write>>nxt_cluster addr=%lu this clstr=%lu next=%lu",nxt_cluster,file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr,file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr); /// specific cluster indexes
         #ENDIF
      }

      file[fnbr].addr_ptr =nxt_cluster;
      file[fnbr].cluster_offset=file[fnbr].cluster_offset + cluster_size_bytes; //foffset is the byte offset within the file
      //that file_addr_ptr points to
      address=file[fnbr].addr_ptr + file[fnbr].offset - file[fnbr].cluster_offset + in_cluster_size;
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("out addr=%lu,out size=%lu",address,out_cluster_size);
      #ENDIF
      if(write_BLOCK(address,&buff[in_cluster_size],out_cluster_size)==false)return(82); /// write block pads with 0x00 to end of sector
   }// end of spanned cluster
   else{
      /// within the current cluster
      address=file[fnbr].addr_ptr+file[fnbr].offset - file[fnbr].cluster_offset;



      if(write_BLOCK(address,buff,file[fnbr].rec_size)==false)return(84); /// write block pads with 0x00 to end of sector

   }
   if(appending_flag==1) {
      /// if appended we need to up date the file size
      file[fnbr].size=file[fnbr].size + file[fnbr].rec_size; /// add one record
      address=file[fnbr].dir_addr_ptr+28; /// file size is offset 28 in tiles
      #IF MMC_WRITE_TRACE
         printf("new file size=%lu",file[fnbr].size);
      #ENDIF
      buff[0]=make8(file[fnbr].size,0);
      buff[1]=make8(file[fnbr].size,1);
      buff[2]=make8(file[fnbr].size,2);
      buff[3]=make8(file[fnbr].size,3);
      MMC_dir_protected=false;
      if(write_BLOCK(address,buff,4)==false)return(85);
   }
   if(set_BLOCKLEN(file[fnbr].rec_size)==false) return(86); /// reset to original rec_size
   return(0);
}


#separate
int file_set(int fnbr,int32 offset){
   /// file open sets the offset to the begining offset=0
   /// this sets the offset within the file ...offset of 0 is a reset

   if(offset>=file[fnbr].size) return(71);

   file[fnbr].offset=offset; //// overwrite the existing offset
   file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr=file[fnbr].root_cluster_ptr; /// set current ptr to beginning
   file[fnbr].cluster_offset=0;
   // move the cluster to the one containing the offset

   while ( offset>cluster_size_bytes ){

      file[fnbr].addr_ptr=cluster_addr(fnbr,NEXT_CLUSTER);
      file[fnbr].cluster_offset+=cluster_size_bytes; //foffset is the byte offset within the file
      if (offset-cluster_size_bytes >0) offset= offset - cluster_size_bytes;

   }
   return(0);
}


#separate
int file_new_cluster(int8 fnbr,int8 mode){ ///////////// this does identical writes to either the FAT1 and FAT2 sectors
   int16 eof_cluster;

   char buff[2],tmp_buff[2];
   int32 address;
   int32 fat_address;
   int16 slot;
   /// an unused cluster has the value 0x0000 as its next cluster ptr
   /// a used cluster has either 0xFFFF meaning last in chain
   /// or a valid cluster displacement in the FAT1 amd FAT2 area
   /// to append a cluster the 0XFFFF needs to be replaced by the appended
   /// cluster location and the appended locations data (next ptr) needs to be set to 0XFFFF



   eof_cluster=file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr;
   #IF MMC_NEW_CLUSTER
      printf("the cluster with eof (FFFF)=%lu \n\r",eof_cluster);
   #ENDIF

   slot=0;
   if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)2)==false)return(false); // force blocklen to 2
   /// use global address of FAT1 assigned by INIT
   if (mode==2)fat_address=fat2_address;
   else fat_address=fat1_address;
   address=fat_address;

   #IF MMC_NEW_CLUSTER
      printf("mode=%u FAT addr=%lu \n\r",mode,address);
   #ENDIF

   do{
      if(read_block(address,buff)==false) return(false) ;
      slot=slot+1;
      address=address+2;
      //printf(" slot %lu =%2x %2x",slot,buff[0],buff[1]);
   }
   while (buff[0]!=0 || buff[1]!=0);

   address=address-2; // correct for over step
   slot=slot-1;


   #IF MMC_NEW_CLUSTER
      printf("slot=%lu address=%lu",slot,address);
   #ENDIF

   /// found an unused cluster
   tmp_buff[0]=0xFF;tmp_buff[1]=0xFF; /// stamp it as last
   MMC_dir_protected=false; /// allow writes to the protected areas
   if(write_block(address,tmp_buff,2)==false ) return(false);

   /////////////////////////////////////////////
   /// update prev cluster with 0xFFFF in it
   tmp_buff[1]=make8(slot,1);
   tmp_buff[0]=make8(slot,0);
   if (mode==1){
      //// update the file info
      file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr=slot;
      #IF MMC_NEW_CLUSTER
         printf("cluster %lu was updated to point to %lu",file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr,file[fnbr].next_cluster_ptr);
      #ENDIF
   }
   /// compute physical address of the current cluster
   MMC_dir_protected=false; /// allow writes to the protected areas
   if(write_BLOCK(fat_address+(file[fnbr].this_cluster_ptr)*2,tmp_buff,2)==false) return(33);
   if(set_BLOCKLEN((int32)file[fnbr].rec_size)==false)return(false); // reset blocklen

   return(true);
}


signed int strncmp(char *s1, char *s2, int n){
   for (; n > 0; s1++, s2++, n--){
      if (*s1 != *s2) return((*s1 <*s2) ? -1: 1);
      else if (*s1 == '\0') return(0);
   }
   return(0);
}
 

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